Safety data from RYBELSUS® (semaglutide) clinical trials
Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Safety and tolerability of RYBELSUS® were evaluated across 10 different clinical trials1-4,a
Safety and tolerability of RYBELSUS® were evaluated across 10 different clinical trials1-4,a
The most frequently reported adverse reactions were GI disorders, including nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea
Nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea occurred mostly during dose escalation
4% and 8% of patients discontinued RYBELSUS® 7 mg and 14 mg, respectively, due to GI adverse reactions, compared to 1% of patients receiving placebo
Incidence of severe hypoglycemia was ≤1%b
Hypoglycemia was more frequent when RYBELSUS® was used in combination with insulin secretagogues (eg, sulfonylurea) or insulin
- Patients may require a lower dose of the secretagogue or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in this setting
A cardiovascular outcomes trial (CVOT) compared RYBELSUS® added to standard of care vs placebo added to standard of care
Primary endpoint was the time to first occurrence of a 3-part composite outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke
The total number of primary component MACE endpoints was 137 (61 [3.8%] with RYBELSUS® and 76 [4.8%] with placebo)
aIncluding 1 monotherapy trial and 1 trial in combination with insulin.1 b“Severe” hypoglycemia adverse reactions are episodes requiring the assistance of another person.
Adverse reactions in placebo-controlled trials reported in ≥5% of RYBELSUS®-treated patients1,c
In the pool of placebo- and active-controlled trials, the types and frequency of common adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, were similar to those listed in the table above.
PIONEER 4 adverse events vs liraglutide 1.8 mg5
Comparator AE rates are not an adequate basis for comparison of safety between products
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice
Data are n (%).
dOccurring in more than 5% of participants in any treatment group, categorized by preferred term (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, version 20.1).
Explore the RYBELSUS® clinical trials
RYBELSUS® went head-to-head with the most prescribed DPP-4i, SGLT-2i, and an injectable GLP-1 RA.1,3
Important Safety Information for RYBELSUS® (semaglutide) tablets 7 mg or 14 mg
WARNING: RISK OF THYROID C-CELL TUMORS
In rodents, semaglutide causes dose-dependent and treatment-duration-dependent thyroid C-cell tumors at clinically relevant exposures. It is unknown whether RYBELSUS® causes thyroid C-cell tumors, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), in humans as human relevance of semaglutide-induced rodent thyroid C-cell tumors has not been determined
RYBELSUS® is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of MTC and in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). Counsel patients regarding the potential risk for MTC with the use of RYBELSUS® and inform them of symptoms of thyroid tumors (e.g. a mass in the neck, dysphagia, dyspnea, persistent hoarseness). Routine monitoring of serum calcitonin or using thyroid ultrasound is of uncertain value for early detection of MTC in patients treated with RYBELSUS®
Indication and Usage
RYBELSUS® (semaglutide) tablets 7 mg or 14 mg is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Limitations of Use
RYBELSUS® is not recommended as a first-line therapy for patients who have inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise because of the uncertain relevance of rodent C-cell tumor findings to humans
RYBELSUS® has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. Consider other antidiabetic therapies in patients with a history of pancreatitis
RYBELSUS® is not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes
Important Safety Information (cont'd)
RYBELSUS® is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2), and in patients with a prior serious hypersensitivity reaction to semaglutide or to any of the excipients in RYBELSUS®. Serious hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis and angioedema have been reported with RYBELSUS®
Warnings and Precautions
Risk of Thyroid C-Cell Tumors: Patients should be further evaluated if serum calcitonin is measured and found to be elevated or thyroid nodules are noted on physical examination or neck imaging
Pancreatitis: Has been reported in clinical trials. Observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (including persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back and which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting). If pancreatitis is suspected, discontinue RYBELSUS® and initiate appropriate management; if confirmed, do not restart RYBELSUS®
Diabetic Retinopathy Complications: In a pooled analysis of glycemic control trials with RYBELSUS®, patients reported diabetic retinopathy related adverse reactions during the trial (4.2% with RYBELSUS® and 3.8% with comparator). In a 2-year trial with semaglutide injection involving patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, more events of diabetic retinopathy complications occurred in patients treated with semaglutide injection (3.0%) compared to placebo (1.8%). The absolute risk increase for diabetic retinopathy complications was larger among patients with a history of diabetic retinopathy at baseline than among patients without a known history of diabetic retinopathy.
Rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a temporary worsening of diabetic retinopathy. Patients with a history of diabetic retinopathy should be monitored for progression of diabetic retinopathy
Hypoglycemia: Patients receiving RYBELSUS® in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may have an increased risk of hypoglycemia, including severe hypoglycemia. Inform patients using these concomitant medications of the risk of hypoglycemia and educate them on the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia
Acute Kidney Injury: There have been postmarketing reports of acute kidney injury and worsening of chronic renal failure, which may sometimes require hemodialysis, in patients treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists, including semaglutide. Some of these events have been reported in patients without known underlying renal disease. A majority of the reported events occurred in patients who had experienced nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or dehydration. Monitor renal function when initiating or escalating doses of RYBELSUS® in patients reporting severe adverse gastrointestinal reactions
Hypersensitivity: Serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis, angioedema) have been reported in patients treated with RYBELSUS®. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of RYBELSUS®, treat promptly per standard of care, and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema or anaphylaxis with another GLP-1 receptor agonist
Acute Gallbladder Disease: Acute events of gallbladder disease such as cholelithiasis or cholecystitis have been reported in GLP-1 receptor agonist trials and postmarketing. In placebo-controlled trials, cholelithiasis was reported in 1% of patients treated with RYBELSUS® 7 mg. Cholelithiasis was not reported in RYBELSUS® 14 mg or placebo-treated patients. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies and appropriate clinical follow-up are indicated
The most common adverse reactions, reported in ≥5% of patients treated with RYBELSUS® are nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, decreased appetite, vomiting and constipation
When initiating RYBELSUS®, consider reducing the dose of concomitantly administered insulin secretagogue (such as sulfonylureas) or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia
RYBELSUS® delays gastric emptying and has the potential to impact the absorption of other oral medications. Closely follow RYBELSUS® administration instructions when coadministering with other oral medications and consider increased monitoring for medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as levothyroxine
Use in Specific Populations
Pregnancy: Available data with RYBELSUS® are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Based on animal reproduction studies, there may be risks to the fetus from exposure to RYBELSUS®. Use only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus
Lactation: There are no data on the presence of semaglutide in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the unknown potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed infant due to the possible accumulation of salcaprozate sodium (SNAC), an absorption enhancer in RYBELSUS®, from breastfeeding and because there are alternative formulations of semaglutide that can be used during lactation, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with RYBELSUS®
Discontinue RYBELSUS® in women at least 2 months before a planned pregnancy due to the long washout period for semaglutide
Pediatric Use: Safety and efficacy of RYBELSUS® have not been established in pediatric patients (younger than 18 years)
Please click here for Prescribing Information, including Boxed Warning.
RYBELSUS® [package insert]. Plainsboro, NJ: Novo Nordisk Inc; June 2022.
Pieber TR, Bode B, Mertens A, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral semaglutide with flexible dose adjustment versus sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes (PIONEER 7): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3a trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7(7):528-539.
Yamada Y, Katagiri H, Hamamoto Y, et al; for the PIONEER 9 Investigators. Dose-response, efficacy, and safety of oral semaglutide monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (PIONEER 9): a 52-week, phase 2/3a, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;8(5):377-391.
Yabe D, Nakamura J, Kaneto H, et al; for the PIONEER 10 Investigators. Safety and efficacy of oral semaglutide versus dulaglutide in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (PIONEER 10): an open-label, randomised, active-controlled, phase 3a trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;8(5):392-406.
Pratley R, Amod A, Hoff ST, et al. Oral semaglutide versus subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in type 2 diabetes (PIONEER 4): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3a trial. Lancet. 2019;394(10192):39-50.